Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is a disease caused by a malignant tumor on the cervix as a result of uncontrolled growth of tissue and surrounding normal tissue damage

Etiology
The cause of cervical cancer has not clearly known but there are some risks and predisposing factors that stand out, among others:
1. Age first had sexual intercourse
Research shows that the more young women have sexual intercourse the greater get cervical cancer. Married at the age of 20 years is considered still too young
2. The number of pregnancy and parturition
Cervical cancer most often found in women who parturition. The more often partus the more likely the risk of having cervical Cancer.
3. Number of marriages
Women who frequent sexual intercourse and multiple partners have a major risk factor of cervical kankers this.
4. Viral infections
Infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) and papilloma virus or condyloma viruses acuminata suspected as factor in cervical cancer
5. Social Economy
Cervical carcinoma often found in lower socioeconomic groups may be socio-economic factors closely related to nutrition, immunity and personal hygiene. In the lower socioeconomic groups generally lack the quantity and quality of food does this affect the body's immunity.
6. Hygiene and circumcision
Presumably the influence of easy occurrence of cervical cancer in women whose partners have not been circumcised. This is because the non sircum male penile hygiene is not maintained so much a collection-a collection of smegma.
7. Smoking and the IUD (intrauterine device)
Smoking will stimulate the formation of cancer cells, while the use of an IUD will have an effect on the cervix that is originated from the erosion diserviks who later became a strep infection that is continuous, as this can trigger the formation of cervical cancer.


Classification of cervical cell growth will cancer

Microscopic
1. Dysplasia
Mild dysplasia occurred in one-third portions of the basal epidermis. Severe dysplasia occurred in two thirds epidermihampir indistinguishable from carcinoma in situ.

2. Carcinoma Stage in situ
In situ carcinoma epithelial cell changes occur in all layers of the epidermis into squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ ectoservical growing area, transitional cell and squamous columnar endocervical reserve cells.

3. Mikroinvasif  Carcinoma Stage.
In Mikroinvasif Carcinoma, in addition to changes in the degree of increased cell growth of tumor cells also penetrate the basal membrane and invasion of the stoma so far no more than 5 mm from the basement membrane, these tumors are usually asymptomatic and only found on cancer screening.


4. Invasive Carcinoma Stage
In invasive carcinoma of the prominent changes in the degree of cell growth and cell shape varies. Growing invasive appeared in the area posterior or anterior cervical lip and extends the three departments of the posterior or anterior fornix majors, majors parametrial and corpus uteri.

5. Shape abnormalities in the growth of cervical carcinoma
Growth eksofilik, kool-shaped flowers, growing towards the vagina and can fill half of the vagina without infiltration into the vagina, growth form is easy to necrosis and hemorrhage.

Endofilik growth, usually in the form of ulcer lesions and progressive growth extends to the fornix, posterior and anterior to the corpus uteri and parametrial.
The growth of nodules, usually found in endocervical lesions which gradually transformed into ulcers.


Macroscopic
1. Preclinical stage
Indistinguishable from ordinary chronic cervicitis
2. Beginning Stage
Lesions appear most often around osteum externum
3. Half-up Stage
It has been about the most or the entire lip porsio
4. Advanced stage
Occurs destruction of cervical tissue, so it seems like ulcers with a network of fragile and bleed easily.


Clinical Symptoms


1. Bleeding
Nature can intermenstruit or contact bleeding, sometimes bleeding just happens to the next stage. On the type of bleeding occurs intraservikal slow.
2. Typically resembles water, sometimes there sebeluma onset of bleeding. In more advanced stages of hemorrhage and infection with more whitish fluid that comes out smelling so.


Diagnostic tests

1. Cytology / Pap Smear
Profits, cheap can check out the parts that are not visible.
Weakness, can not determine the precise localization.
2. Schillentest
Epithelial carcinoma of the cervix did not contain glycogen because it does not bind iodine. If porsio iodine then given a normal epithelial carcinoma will be colored brown, while the exposed carcinoma colorless.
3. Coloscopy
Check by using a tool to view the cervix with light and raised 10-40 times.
Advantages: can see clearly the areas concerned so easy to do a biopsy.
Weaknesses: only can check the area that looks just the porsio, are abnormalities in the squamous columnar junction
4. Colpomicroscopy
Seeing the vaginal smear (Pap smear) with magnification up to 200 times
5. Biopsy
With a biopsy can be found or specified types the cancer.
6. Conisation
By way of remove tissue containing mucous membranes and cervical squamous epithelium and gland. Conisation done when the results of cervical cytology in doubt and does not seem obvious abnormalities.


How to prevent and treatment Cervical Cancer

How to detect Cervical Cancer.

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