Fever - Type, Cause, Sign and Symptom, and Treatment

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What is a fever?
Fever is the body temperature rising abnormally. Febrile or fever is generally interpreted in body temperature above 37.2 º C.

Range of different types of fever
Type of fever that may be encountered include:
1. Septic fever
Temperature gradually rose to the level that high once at night and fall back to the level above normal in the morning. Complaints are often accompanied by chills and sweating. When high fever is down to the level of a normal fever is also called hectic.
2. Fever remittances
Body temperature can go down every day but never reached normal body temperature. Causes may be recorded temperatures can reach two degrees and no temperature differences were noted for septic fever.
3. Intermittent fever
Body temperature dropped to the level of normal for several hours in a day. When the fever as it occurs within two days once called tersiana and if there are two free days of fever between the two bouts of fever called kuartana.
4. Continuous fever
Temperature variations throughout the day did not differ by more than one degree. At the level of persistent high fever once called hyperpyrexia.
5. Cyclic fever
An increase in body temperature for several days, followed by a period free of fever for several days followed by a rise in temperature as before.
A type of fever is sometimes associated with a particular disease such as type of intermittent fever for malaria. A patient with symptoms of fever may be connected immediately with an obvious cause such as abscesses, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, malaria, but sometimes simply can not be connected immediately with an obvious cause. In practice 90% of the patients with fever who had just experienced, is primarily a self-limiting illness such as influenza or other similar viral diseases. But this does not mean we do not have to remain vigilant against bacterial infection.

Causes of fever
The cause of fever besides infection can also be caused by circumstances toxemia, malignancy or a reaction to the drug, also in disorders of the central temperature regulation center (eg, cerebral hemorrhage, coma). Basically to achieve the required accuracy of diagnosis of the causes of fever include: accuracy of patient medical history taking, physical examination execution, observation of the disease course and laboratory evaluation. and other appropriate support and holistic.
Some specific things to look for in a fever is a fever ways, the old fever, high fever as well as complaints and symptoms that accompany fever lian.
Undiagnosed fever is a condition where a patient has a fever continuously for 3 weeks and the body temperature above 38.3 degrees Celsius and still has not been obtained even though the cause has been studied intensively for one week by means of laboratory and other medical support.

Sign and Symptoms
1. Body temperature over 37.2º C
2. Sweating
3. Elevated Respiratory
4. Shivering

1. Antipyretic
2. Antibiotics, according to program
3. Avoid alcohol or ice pack

The Process of Menstruation

Menstruation is the periodic and cyclic bleeding from the uterus caused by the collapse of the endometrial tissue. The process of menstruation takes place with the following steps:

a. Menstrual stage or desquamasi

At the stage of menstruation, from the womb through the vagina with menstrual bleeding and the endometrial lining of the cervical mucus. The blood that comes out does not freeze because there fermen that prevents blood clotting and dilute mucosal pieces.
If your period is a lot of the fermen insufficient causing menstrual blood clots. The amount of bleeding during menstruation is normally ± 50 cc. At the stadium menstrual endometrium becomes thin.

b. Post Menstruum Stadium or Regeneration Stadium

This stage since the day of the fourth period is called the endometrium due to injuries that are released gradually re-covered by a mucous membrane of the epithelium of the newly-endometrial glandular epithelium ± 0.5 mm.

c.  Inter Prolifer Stadium or  Menstruum Stadium

This stage gradually from day 5 of menstruation until day 14 of the first day of menstruation. Glands grow more rapidly than other tissues at this stage of ± 3.5 mm thick endometrium.

d. Pre Menstrual Stadium  or  Secretion Stadium

At this stage endometrial thickness remained unchanged but the form of the gland into a long and winding as well as removing sap. Secretory stage lasts from days to 14-28.

Warm-Hot compresses

Definition of Compress

Compres: a pad of cloth applied firmly to a part of the body; compres may be dry or wet, cold or warm (Smith, 1996).

Based on the above definition that the pack can be supplied in dry or wet and cold or warm. Using a hot compress media can be a bag of hot water / hot water bottle, hot steam, mud, hot towels, electric pads and others.

Benefits / effects of heat

Heat is used extensively in the treatment because it has great effects and benefits. The benefits / effects of heat are (Gabriel, 1996):
a. Physical Effects
Heat can manyebabkan liquid, solid and gas experience expansion in all directions.
b. Effects of Chemical
Heat can increase the speed of chemical reactions. Metabolism in tissues will occur with increasing exchanges between the body of chemicals with body fluids.
c. Biological Effects
Heat can cause dilation of blood vessels that lead to increased blood circulation.
In fisilogis the body's response to heat causes dilation of blood vessels, lowering blood viscosity, reduce muscle tension, increase metabolism and increase the permeability of the capillary network. The response of the heat is used for therapeutic purposes in various conditions and circumstances that occur in the body.

Mechanism of Heat

Heat loss or energy enters the body through the skin in four ways: conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation (Gabriel, 1996).
The working principle of a warm compress by using a hot jar wrapped in a cloth that is the conduction heat transfer which occurs from the bladder into the body so that it will cause the dilation of blood vessels, so it will be a decrease in muscle tension. Compress is performed using hot jar wrapped in a cloth, temperature 36° -38° C, which is placed directly on the right side and left side alternately abdomen between the stomach and right hand side of the left abdomen every 5 minutes for 20 minutes. Hot water is replaced every five to ten minutes to maintain the temperature of the hot jar to keep warm. Compress given until the pain is reduced or lost (Perry and Potter, 1993).

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

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What is a urinary tract infection?
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a term used to express the infasi microorganisms in the urinary tract.
1. Significant Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a significant bacteriuria without symptoms.
2. Bacterial Cystitis is a syndrome consisting of:
a. Urinating less time.
b. Frequent urination (day and night).
3. Abacterial Cystitis (urethra Syndrome) is a syndrome consisting of:
a. Urinating less time.
b. Frequent urination without any bacteria in the bladder.

What causes urinary tract infection?
The most common cause of UTI is a Gram-negative bacteria that normally inhabit including intestine which then rises into the urinary system. Of gram negative turns E. Coli occupies the top spot, followed by Proteus, Klebsiela, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas.
This type of Gram-positive Coccus less frequently as a cause of UTI, while Enterococcus and Stapilococcus aureus is often found in patients with urinary tract stones, elderly men with prostate hipertrophi or in patients using catheters. If found S. aureus in the urine should be suspected hematogenous infection of the kidney. So it is with pseudomonas aeroginosa can infect the urinary tract of hematogan path and in approximately 25% of patients with isolated tipoid salmonilla in the urine. Bacteria that can cause a UTI by way haematogenous is brusela, nokardia, aktinormises, and mycobacterium tuberkolosae.
Viruses are also found in urintanpa symptoms of acute UTI. Adenovirua types 11 and 12 suspected as cause of hemorrhagic cystitis. Hemorrhagic cystitis may also be caused by Scistosoma hematobium flatworms that belong to this class. Candida is a fungus that most commonly cause UTIs, especially in patients with catheters, diabetes mellitus or patients who received treatment with antibiotics spktrum area.

What are the symptoms of urinary tract infections?
Clinical symptoms of UTI are not typical and even in some patients without symptoms. Symptoms are often found is dysuria, polaki Syria, and urinary urgency that usually occur together. Supra pubic pain and pelvic area. Polikisuria occur due to the bladder can not accommodate more than 500 ml urine because of the inflamed mucosa, so frequent urination. Stranguria is a difficult urination accompanied by muscle spasms and waist are often found in acute cystitis. Tenesmus is pain with the desire to empty the bladder was empty though. Nocturia is likely to frequent urination at night due to decreased kandungkemih capacity. Often secondary nocturnal enuresis also found that wetting in adults, the difficulty in initiating urination prostatismus and less heavy flow of urine. Pain urethra, ureter and renal colic.
Clinical symptoms of UTI in accordance with the urine of infected as follows:
  1. At the bottom of the UTI, patients usually complain of pain or burning in the urethra during urination with little urine and discomfort in the supra pubic area.
  2. At the top of the UTI can be found symptoms of headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, malaise, or low back pain.

What checks are carried out on urinary tract infections?
1. Urinalysis
a. Leukosuria
b. Hematuria
2. Bacteriological
a. Microscopic
b. Bacterial culture
3. Chemical tests
4. Plat-dye test (Dip-slide)
5. Radiological examination and other examinations.